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Spirits And Spirituality: Alcohol In Caribbean Slave Societies By Frederick H.

Smith Alcohol was familiar to newly arrived African slaves in the Caribbean and the symbolic meanings slaves attached to drinking reflect the continuity of African cultural beliefs.

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English slave trader John Atkins (cited in Craton, Walvin, and Wright 19) described the specific demands at different trading regions, but believed alcohol was "everywhere called for." African historian Lynn Pan (1975:7) argued that the only exception to the alcohol-for-slaves model was in the northern stretches of the slave trade where Islam was strongly entrenched.

Yet, even in Muslim controlled areas, alcohol use and the alcohol trade were strong.

As in Africa, alcohol helped foster slave spirituality and promote group identity.

The construction of new drinking styles also strengthened resistance ideologies, which challenged European efforts to suppress African customs.